Spectrometer InfraRed-2 on board the ISRO mission

The Indian Space Research Organisation or ISRO is the national agency for space research in India. Its headquarters is located in Bangalore and employees is approximately 17,000. The goal of the organization is the development of space technologies and their applications for the development of India.

The ISRO logo has an arrow symbolizing a rocket and two stylized solar panels that represent a satellite. ISRO was founded in 1969 within the Department of Atomic Energy and later at the Space Commission and the Department of Space created in June of 1972. India and ISRO sent Aryabhata, India's first satellite into space, in 1975 thanks to a pitcher of Soviet Union. India's first launch took place in 1980.

Dr. Vikram Sarabhai is the founder ISRO is the father of the Indian space program. Since its formation, ISRO has launched many satellites. The array of satellites includes satellites IRS (Indian Remote Sensing), the INSAT (Indian National Satellite) (in geostationary orbit), the GSAT (launched using GSLV) and METSAT 1 (launched by the PSLV).

The family of INSAT satellites includes the series 1 (A, B, C, D), 2 (A, B, C, D/DT) and 3 (A, B, C, D, E). Provide communications services and television broadcasting all over India and for the most part they have been launched by Arianespace. However, the most recent, the INSAT 3E was launched with a rocket ISRO, without any outside help. ISRO also plans to launch the next new generation satellites INSAT 4A and 4B in 2005 and 2006.

The IRS satellites provide remote services of analysis and are compounds from the series 1 (A, B, C, D). Future versions will be identified by a name that associates the satellite to its area of application (such as OCEANSAT, Cartosat, ResourceSar, etc.). Some satellites have additional information depending on the pitcher and the vehicle (eg series PSLV). ISRO and the Department of Space have formed a company, the Antrix Corp Ltd to promote the marketing of IRS satellites.

METSAT or Meteorological Satellite, is the first satellite of ISRO can provide weather information. In 2003 METSAT was renamed Kalpana in honor of astronaut Kalpana Chawla. METSAT 2/Kalpana 2 is expected to be launched in 2007. Technology Experiment Satellite are experimental satellites and serve primarily to make spy satellites. The satellites have the ability to detect moving vehicles and also smaller objects of a meter according to the satellite.

They are second only to the generation of American spy satellites with high resolution. In the Kargil war, they were used for espionage operations. They were used for the first time during the invasion of Iraq in 2003 when it produced images at high resolutions of the installations to be destroyed.

ISRO begun development of a mission to the moon called Chandrayaan Astrosat. It was to be the last step Indian exploration of deep space. In 2005 the Indian government approved a budget of 3.64 billion Indian rupees for the planned mission to the Moon in 2008. ISRO worked jointly with the mission's European Space Agency which provided financial and technological support. ISRO was the fourth after the agency NASA, the European Space Agency and the Soviet agency to have sent an unmanned mission to the moon.

ISRO wallpaper

With the spacecraft Chandrayaan-1, ISRO launched on 22 October 2008 a PSLV rocket, India's first spacecraft. Their goal was the moon. Although lost contact after 10 months, the probe and the mission was terminated prematurely and the ISRO assessed the mission as successful. On 5 November 2013, it began its mission to Mars successfully. The transported spacecraft Mangalyaan carries five instruments to Mars to study it, but its primary goal is to serve as a technology demonstrator for future interplanetary probes.

After the recent success of Cartosat-1 missions, HAMSAT and EduSat ISRO it has started the development of a new launcher cryogenic the GSLV. This pitcher in the final configuration will be able to carry 7 tons of payload. ISRO will also launch several satellites for the European agencies and the Russian agency, such as Agile and satellites GLONASS.

ISRO is planning to launch the rocket SRE-1 and GSAT-4 in a couple of years. The initial cooperation with the Federation of Russian developer of launchers was opposed by the government of United States of America which has raised proliferation issues. Threatened sanctions on ISRO and Russian space organization Glavkosmos have prevented the technological transfer of cryogenic fuel engines.

Under pressure, the Glavkosmos has agreed to sell to the ISRO, cryogenic fuel engines but not the related technologies and not to use Indian companies for motor achievements. As a result, India has had to develop its own technology and its own research facility. ISRO is using Russian technology of cryogenic pitchers in GSLV but gradually is replacing Russian project with internally developed projects.