Tuesday, March 21, 2017

The Celebration of Nowruz

Nowruz is celebrated in Parsi communities in Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey, and in many other countries during the spring equinox. Born in pre-Islamic Persian era, Nowruz was initially a sacred Zoroastrian festival. In the Iranian countries that follow a lunar-solar calendar (called Hijri-Shamsi or Hegira calendar), it is not considered a religious festival but is similar to the new year in Western countries. In addition to representing the start date of the calendar, the Nowruz is also celebrated as the starting date of the spring.

According to the mythological Iranian tradition, Nawrūz can be traced back to about 15,000 years ago, at the time of the legendary Persian king Yima. This, mythical figure of Zoroastrianism is usually shown by tradition as the creator of the festival. Subsequently, Zoroaster reorganized the festival in honor of Ahura Mazda, the main deity of the pre-Islamic Iranian pantheon. Recent research attests that, 12 centuries later, in 487 BC, Persian Emperor Dario celebrated Nawrūz in his royal palace in Persepolis. In that year, in fact, the sun fell exactly at the center of the astronomical observatory built in the palace. This exceptional event was seen as a sign of goodwill for the kingdom.

Subsequently, Nawrūz became a national holiday of the Persian Empire under the Partisan Dynasty (248 BC - 224 AD). The greatest documentation of the Nawrūz festivals in ancient times, however, came from Ardashir I, the founder of the Sasanid dynasty (224 - 651). During this dynasty, Nawrūz became the most important holiday of the year, and at this time traditions such as the public hearing of the ruler, the amnesty of the prisoners and the exchange of gifts were introduced.

Nawrūz was one of the few festivals of ancient Persia. The Nowruz has been celebrated for over 3,000 years and has been assimilated by all peoples and cultures that once formed part of the Persian empire. Currently, Nawrūz is celebrated in many countries of the Near East, Central Asia, Turkey, Albania and some former Soviet republics such as Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. It is an important celebration of the Kurdish people, where it is considered an important moment of national unity.

It is considered a religious festival for the Baha'i faith. Other cultures have developed some peculiar variants of the same festival, so its name has changed according to local dialects and languages. Some names with which the Nawrūz are known are: Newroz (especially at the Curds), Nowruz, Nauruz, Nauryz, Noe-Rooz, Nawroz, Norooz, Noruz, Novruz, Noh Ruz, Nauroz, Nav-roze, Navroz, Naw Rúz At Baha'i), Nevruz, Sultan Nevruz (especially in Albania), Наврӯз, Navruz (especially in Turkey), or Nowrouz. So its name has changed according to local dialects and languages. Some names with which the Nawrūz are known are: Newroz (especially at the Curds), Nowruz, Nauruz, Nauryz, Noe-Rooz, Nawroz, Norooz, Noruz, Novruz, Noh Ruz, Nauroz, Nav-roze, Navroz, Naw Rúz At Baha'i), Nevruz, Sultan Nevruz (especially in Albania), Наврӯз, Navruz (especially in Turkey), or Nowrouz. So its name has changed according to local dialects and languages. Some names with which the Nawrūz are known are: Newroz (especially at the Curds), Nowruz, Nauruz, Nauryz, Noe-Rooz, Nawroz, Norooz, Noruz, Novruz, Noh Ruz, Nauroz, Nav-roze, Navroz, Naw Rúz At Baha'i), Nevruz, Sultan Nevruz (especially in Albania), Наврӯз, Navruz (especially in Turkey), or Nowrouz.

Iran (ancient Persia) is the country where the Nowruz was born. The holiday preparation period begins in the last of the year in the Persian calendar as well as the final month of the winter. Festivities include various traditions and rituals. Of these the most important are Khane Tekani (house cleaning), the Chaharshanbe Suri (the festival of fire) and especially the preparation of Haft Sîn.

The Khane Tekani is the traditional ritual that opens the Nawrūz festivities and consists in the complete cleanliness and restoration of their own home. It is probably a reference to the renewal of nature that takes place this season. Tradition also includes the purchase of new clothes and the decoration of houses with flowers, especially the hyacinth and the tulip. The Khane Tekani usually begins 12 days before Nawrūz, during which every family dedicates themselves to cleaning the house and visiting relatives and friends.

The Chaharshanbe Suri is a ritual which is celebrated on the last Wednesday of the year as the festival of fire. It is an allegorical representation of the light that defeats the darkness, a tradition that invokes the Mazdean dualism and is therefore linked to the ancient origin of the festival itself. During the night of Chahârshanbe Sûrî it is traditional to go out into the streets and set small and big bonfires on which young men jump by singing the traditional verses of Zardî-ye man az to, sorkhî-ye to az man.

There are many other traditions related to Chahârshanbe Sûrî. One of them wants that the spirits of the dead can return to visit their living descendants this night. Other traditions include the breaking of some terracotta amphorae, in a wish of good fortune (Kûzeh Shekastân), and the Gereh-goshâ'Î, the act of making a knot at the corner of a handkerchief and then asking someone to dissolve it, another symbolic act of blessing.

The Haft Sîn is not a meal but the preparation of a table with seven elements whose names begin with the sin in Persian. The Seven is a sacred number and symbolizes the seven archangels with the help of which nearly three thousand years ago Zarathustra founded his religion Haft Sin brings fortune, health, prosperity, spiritual longitude to the inhabitants of the house Life, Haft Sîn is also constituted by the special way of arranging and decorating the table, which is adorned in the most beautiful way possible with flowers, the sacred book followed by the family, the Persian tricolor flag, White and Red Green Horizontally ( Homeland, faith, red blood spilled by heroes).There are always the lit candles, a bowl of water symbolizing the transparency of life and a leaf on the water for the fall of life, the mirror to be visible as we are.

The Kurds celebrate Nawrūz in the period between 18 and 21 March. In their pronunciation, the term is usually pronounced New Roz. Celebrations include leaving the city to celebrate the arrival of spring, and popular dances and songs. At night, fires are lit in the countryside, and festivals continue until recently. Women usually dress in shining colors, while men are usually wearing painted flags of red, green and yellow, the colors of the Kurdish people. The typical phrases spoken during this occasion are Newroz píroz be! and Bijí Newroz!

As a moment of national unity (even from the Kurds themselves), the Nawrūz celebration was banned in Turkey until 2000. In recent years, the Nawrūz period has been the subject of violence, and many Kurds have been arrested by the Turkish police because they are surprised to celebrate it. In 1992 the death of some 70 people in the clashes with the police following the celebrations. At present, the Turkish state celebrates Nawrūz as its own party.

On the other hand, Almost all of the Kurdish political and cultural organizations in Turkey continue to organize the festivities of Nawrūz every year, insisting constantly on the significance that they have as a vehicle of national identity for the Kurds of Turkey. Some estimates talk of celebrations over 1 million participants in Diyarbakır, Turkish Kurdistan. Since festivities are in any way plagued by political messages, the Ankara government has often criticized the fact that these are in fact more than cultural celebrations.

Some estimates talk of celebrations over million participants in Diyarbakır, Turkish Kurdistan. Since festivities are in any way plagued by political messages, the Ankara government has often criticized the fact that these are in fact more than cultural celebrations. Some estimates talk of celebrations over 1 million participants in Diyarbakır, Turkish Kurdistan. Since festivities are in any way plagued by political messages, the Ankara government has often criticized the fact that these are in fact more than cultural celebrations.

In the Iranian-born Baha'i religion, the Nawrūz (pronounced New Rūz) is considered a religious holiday that inaugurates the new year of the Bahai calendar and puts an end to the 19-day fast. Iran's Baha'is celebrate Nawrūz according to local dictates, but among communities around the world, there is no rigid procedure to celebrate it. For example, the Baha'is of the United States are used to consuming an abundant dinner and then devoting themselves to prayer and reading their sacred texts. In general, their community is obliged to abstain from work and school in observance of the holiday day.

While Iranian Baha'i communities celebrate the feast day of spring equinox, in other parts of the world this is usually celebrated on March 21, regardless of the exact date of the equinox itself. In general, the Nawrūz is celebrated by the Iranian communities in every country they are in. It is also celebrated as a holiday day in many Caucasus and Central Asia countries, including Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Pakistan. In Turkey, it has been celebrated since recent times, as the day of the birth of the Turkish people.

In Pakistan, the northern region of Gilgit-Baltistan is fervently celebrated from March 1 to March 21. In Albania, the local variant, called Sultan Nevruz, is celebrated among the Muslim population, especially among the members of the Bektashi ṭarīqa.

Navroz festival images parsi new year wallpapers
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