Thursday, December 1, 2016

Aids and HIV: Will immunodeficiency be finally cured?

The World AIDS Day, organized every year on 1 December is dedicated to increasing awareness of the outbreak of AIDS due to the spread of the HIV virus. Since 1981, AIDS has killed over 25 million people, becoming one of the most destructive epidemics in recorded history. Recently access to treatment and antiretroviral drugs has improved in many regions of the world. The AIDS epidemic has claimed about 3.1 million lives during the 2005 and more than half of them (570,000) were children.


The idea of a World AIDS Day originated at the World Summit of Ministers of Health on Programmes for AIDS Prevention in 1988 and was later adopted by governments, international organizations and associations around the world. From 1987 to 2004 the World AIDS Day was organized by the UNAIDS, the UN organization that deals with the fight against AIDS, which, in collaboration with other organizations involved, chose from time to time a "theme" for the day.

Since 2005 UNAIDS has delegated responsibility for the organization and management of the Day to the WAC, an independent organization, which has chosen as its theme for the year until 2010 - Stop AIDS: Keep the Promise theme that is not closely related to the Day but which reflects the daily efforts of the WAC.

Opportunistic infections that take advantage of the weakened immune system of a person are the most common complication of HIV/AIDS. Sometimes ill adults might contract an infection from germs that normally do not cause disease in a healthy person like Cryptococcus. People with AIDS (especially boys) may contract a serious form of a common infection, such as salmonella (a type of bacteria that causes diarrhea) and chickenpox.



In boys with HIV, the most common opportunistic infections are viral infections as a form of chronic walking pneumonia (LIP), herpes simplex virus, herpes zoster, and cytomegalovirus infection, infections caused by parasites as a type of pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis Carini, a microscopic parasite that can not be driven because of the decrease of the immune system, and toxoplasmosis. Bacterial infections number as meningitis bacteria, tuberculosis and salmonellosis, fungal infections such as esophagitis (inflammation of the esophagus), and candidiasis or thrush.

Patients with HIV are also exposed to a higher risk of some cancers because of their weakened immune systems. Lymphomas associated with infection of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are more common in people with AIDS. The most difficult conditions to treat are the atrophy (the inability to support the body weight due to poor appetite in the long term and other infections related to HIV) and HIV encephalopathy (brain due to infection by HIV causes swelling and damage to the brain tissue over time).

HIV encephalopathy degenerates into a dementia AIDS, especially in adults. Atrophy can sometimes be relieved with nutritional and daily tips with high-calorie supplements, but it is extremely difficult to prevent HIV encephalopathy.
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