Saturday, September 10, 2016

9/11 - Conspiracy theories on the terrorist attacks in New York

The 9/11 attacks were a series of four suicide attacks against civilian and military targets in the territory of the United States by a group of Al-Qaeda terrorists. More than 3,000 people died and are often cited as the most extreme terrorist attack of the contemporary age.

On the morning of September 11, 2001, 19 affiliated terrorist organization under the matrix of Islamic fundamentalist al-Qaeda hijacked four commercial civilian flights. The terrorists intentionally crashed two aircraft on the north and south towers of the World Trade Center of New York, causing the collapse of both skyscrapers and causing serious damage to nearby buildings.

The third hijacked airliner was directed against the Pentagon. The fourth plane was directed against the Capitol or the White House in Washington. It crashed in a field near Shanksville in Somerset County (Pennsylvania) after the passengers and crew members tried unsuccessfully to regain control of the aircraft. Fifteen hijackers came from Saudi Arabia, two from the United Arab Emirates, one from Egypt and one from Lebanon.

Most of the victims were civilian involving 70 different nationalities. The attacks had major global consequences as the United States responded by declaring war on terror and attacked Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban. The US Parliament passed the USA PATRIOT Act and other states strengthened their anti-terrorist legislation.

The damage to the Pentagon was repaired a year later and at the place was erected a small memorial. Rebuilding the World Trade Center has been rather more problematic, due to disputes about the possible projects and on the time needed for their completion. Now there are two fountains in place of the foundations of the tower.

During the hijacking, some passengers and crew members were able to make calls with the radiotelephone air-surface of GTE and mobile phones and claimed that several hijackers were aboard each plane and that terrorists had taken control of the aircraft by using knives and box cutters. They killed a few flight attendants and at least one pilot or a passenger, including the commander of flight 11, John Ogonowski.

The Commission of Inquiry into the attacks of 11 September 2001 ruled that two of the hijackers had purchased Leatherman multi-purpose tools. Some kind of spray, such as tear gas or pepper spray was used on American Flight 11 and United flight 175 to keep passengers off from the first-class cabin.

A flight attendant for American Airlines 11, a passenger on flight 175 and some passengers of flight 93 reported that the hijackers had bombs. No trace of explosives was found on the sites of impact.

On United Airlines Flight 93 recordings of the black box revealed that crew and passengers attempted to take control of the plane from hijackers after learning that other hijacked planes had been used to crash into the buildings. According to the transcript of the recording, one of the hijackers gave the order to turn the aircraft when it was clear that they would lose control because of the passengers.

The fall of WTC 1 produced debris which damaged the nearby World Trade Center 7 (WTC 7), whose structural integrity was further compromised by fires, which led to the collapse of the east penthouse. The entire building completely collapsed.

9/11 photos

Another report was released by the Associated Press, according to which a Boeing 767 of Delta Air Lines, Flight 1989 had been hijacked. This news was a mistake, as it was actually thought that there was the danger, but the plane responded to the commands of air traffic controllers and landed in Cleveland (Ohio).

The baggage of Mohamed Atta, which was not transhipped from his flight from Portland flight 11, contained papers that revealed the identity of all 19 hijackers and other important clues about their plans, and their intentions. On the day of the attacks, the National Security Agency intercepted communications that led to Osama bin Laden.

The declaration of a holy war against the United States and the fatwa signed by Osama bin Laden and others in 1996, which called for the killing of American civilians, are seen as evidence of his motive in the attacks of September 11. On September 16, 2001, Laden denied any involvement in the attacks by reading a statement broadcast on Al Jazeera.

In November 2001, US forces recovered a recording in a destroyed house in Jalalabad, in Afghanistan, where Laden speaks to Khaled al-Harbi. Following the attacks, numerous theories have been formulated differently from those commonly accepted, generally configured as 9/11 conspiracy theories.

These doubts and theories have given rise to innumerable disputes about nature, origin and those responsible for the attacks, disputing the contents of official reports about the incident. They suggest among other things, that people in positions of responsibility in the States were aware of the danger and that they deliberately decided not to prevent them, or individuals unrelated to al-Qaeda would have participated in the planning or execution of the attacks.

One of the most widespread theories casts doubt that the buildings affected in New York have plummeted only as a consequence of the impact of the planes and the fires that followed but was a controlled demolition.

In the days immediately following the attacks, many memorials and vigils were held around the world. Around Ground Zero, the first memorial was the Tribute in Light, with 88 lighthouses from places research installation in the foundations of the towers which projected two columns of light vertically into the sky.

In New York, was established a competition to decide the design of a monument to be erected on the site of Ground Zero. The winning design, Reflecting Absence, selected in August 2006, consists of a pair of reflecting pools on the site of the foundations of the towers, surrounded by an underground monument where the names of the victims are written.

The creation of a museum on the site was suspended after the International Freedom Center was abandoned due to criticism of the families of the victims. One of the completely destroyed buildings, the World Trade Center 7 has a new office tower, completed in 2006. The construction of One World Trade Center, formerly the Freedom Tower was completed in June 2013. With a height of 1776 feet (541 meters and 32 cm), it is the fourth tallest building in the world. The number 1776 symbolizes the year of the Declaration of Independence of America.

The damaged section of the Pentagon was rebuilt and reoccupied within a year. The Inspector General of the CIA conducted an internal investigation into the CIA's performance before September 11 and was highly critical of senior CIA officials for not doing all that was possible against terrorism, in particular for failing to stop two of the hijackers, Nawaf al-Hazmi and Khalid al-Mihdhar and for failing to share information about them with the FBI.

In May 2007, senators from both the Democratic Party and the Republicans supported a bill that would have made an internal investigation report of the CIA public concerning the responsibilities of the CIA personnel before and after the attacks. Completed in 2005, the report was never made public. It is also the thesis of the film documentary Fahrenheit 9/11 by the journalist director Michael Moore.

The attacks were condemned by governments around the world, and many nations offered aid and solidarity. The rulers of most countries of the Middle East, including Afghanistan, condemned the attacks. Iraq was no exception, as it spread immediately a statement stating that Americans Cowboys were picking the fruit of their crimes against humanity.

Another exception was the celebrations by some Palestinians. About a month after the attacks, the United States led a broad coalition in the invasion of Afghanistan, with the aim of overthrowing the government of the Taliban, accused of hosting al-Qaeda. The US attacked the Taliban government and arrested more than 600 alleged members of al-Qaeda.

Several countries including UK, India, Australia, France, Germany, Indonesia, China, Canada, Russia, Pakistan, Jordan, Mauritius, Uganda and Zimbabwe promulgated anti-terrorist laws and froze the bank accounts of people who suspected they had links to al-Qaeda.

Intelligence agencies and police forces of some countries including Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines arrested persons which indicated suspected terrorists with the declared aim to destroy the terrorist cells around the world.

The United States opened the detention center at Guantanamo Bay, in Cuba, for those they termed illegal combatants. The legitimacy of these detentions has been questioned by the European Union and Amnesty International, among others.