Monasteries perched on a rock, The sacred place where the Zanskar meets the Indus, Ladakh is a part of Tibet was for political reasons in Indian territory, a valley located about 3,500 meters above sea level that is difficult to access by land. Buddhist tradition is still intact and the harsh mountain life has not changed much over the centuries. The journey is centered on the visit of the main and remote monasteries of the capital Leh and some villages at high altitudes. We can breathe the profound spirituality of the people and bring us closer to fascinating legends handed down over the centuries in a geological context of rare beauty.
The Penzi La step is dominated by the towering Drang Drung glacier that with its eternal snow wrapped in mist and surrounded by peaks and massifs feeds the Stod and the Lung Nak waterways crossing the valley of Zanskar and the other that of Suru, giving these rugged lands a cloak made of emerald and abundance.
It is a region of breathtaking beauty but one of the least accessible of the country as for nine months a year in fact the two rivers freeze over and the road is buried under two feet of snow, thereby allowing the visitors only a small opening which lies between July and September. The Penzi La step is the only access road carriageway but, alternatively, you can follow the perilous paths through treacherous mountains, bring in a week's journey to Darcha, in Himachal Pradesh.
In the car, on the other hand, political tensions are to be reckoned with absolutely perchance, but you can start from Srinagar in Kashmir and reach Kargil along the beautiful mountain resort of Sonamarg, crossing the difficult step of Zojila and then the town of Dras, which boasts of being the coldest inhabited place in the world, if we exclude the Siberia. Aside from Kargil, although in peacetime is an interesting place, you can proceed to the Suru Valley through Sankhu and then Panikhar, where you can stop in the only existing dilapidated local government Guest House for a couple of nights for acclimatization of the altitude, at the foot of the magnificent snowcapped peaks of Nun and Kun, surrounded by golden crops of barley ready for harvest in August.
Women in Panikhar and neighboring Tai Suru are constantly engaged in various agricultural chores while, as often happens in India, men seem to wander without obligation and snotty kids smiling and posing for photos in front of the visitors. Suru is Shiite Muslim area and the village of Tai Suru houses a mosque by the metal dome decorated with beautiful arabesques and an Imambara. Pastors air biblical accompany their pashmina goats changthangi towards the houses that share after the day's grazing on the pastures. Other settlements in the area are Tangol and Achambore which offer scenic views of the Suru valley thunderingly rushing through gorges and cliffs.
The Suru Valley is probably the most verdant of Ladakh with its villages are located on the alluvial wedge formed between two massive hills, where the proportions thaw the water, channeled into unique channels in the region, mainly through the crops of barley and peas. Each settlement has a nullah, a canal that runs along the main road and proportioning running water to the inhabitants, where women wash clothes and dishes. Drinking water is instead collected from pristine streams that come directly from glaciers or from a pump installed in the country.
Once acclimated, you can continue to the Parkachik glacier and the eponymous village below to arrive at Rangdum, a small settlement located in one of the most desolate plains that flank the valley of Zanskar. Geographically, it still belongs to the Suru Valley, but culturally and socially Rangdum is much more akin to the Buddhist Zanskar.
The village of Julidok, near, is composed of a dozen houses in all and whose inhabitants are employed in mass to the local Gompa scenically built on top of the hill, against a backdrop of majestic mountains, characterized by layers of millions of years old, dating back to when the entire Himalayan range was the bottom of the Tethys Sea, before being projected into the sky; here is frequently found fossil shells and corals, an integral part, with turquoise jewelry traditional Ladakhi women.
Despite its size, Rangdum offers five or six workshops, almost all small bars that offer Gurgur chai tea salted butter but also Maggi noodles, instant noodles. After crossing the Passo La Penzi then you get to Padum, the largest village in the valley of Zanskar, which can be chosen as a base camp for exploring the region dotted by beautiful Gompa, nestled on the shores of massive embroidered by winding paths of access.
The sense of isolation from the world that we perceive in this area is considerable, even if the life of the inhabitants is greatly changed over the last years; ponies that once transported the goods along dangerous mountain trails have been replaced today by the truck, which during the three summer months leading to the valley supplies for the remaining nine months of isolation, but most of all comfort items necessary to meet the needs of the many European tourists who flock to the area for summer rafting down the Zanskar impetuous or hiking and camping everywhere. Tibetan cuisine eateries and shops are covered with offers and requests for steps towards Leh and Kargil. They are sold, one beside the other, toothpaste and thangkas , vegetables and delicious turquoise necklaces.
The Zongkul Gompa is hidden in the folds of the mountains and it is difficult to find a taxi driver who wants to take you up there, so much bumpy the road is dangerous and even by local standards, but we insist you do it. Along the way they meet water mills, which, when not grind corn, spin prayer wheels constantly. Then, if you have good legs and lungs better, you can walk down the steps cut into the rock to climb to the cave that houses the Gompa. The wind eventually survivor will be permanently cut off from the beauty of the landscape. Butter lamps lovingly prepared and delicious frescoes, with urgent need of restoration, welcome the pilgrim reached its destination.
The whole valley is dotted with Gompas precariously hanging at his sides, as the Karsha Gompa, attached to the coast from the top of a 5000 m. and whose ornamentation is no less remarkable for its location. Deep reds, ochres, golds and yellows stand out strikingly against the backdrop of saturated cobalt blue of the sky and the gray of the river that unfolds between the snow-capped peaks.
Inside, a series of frescoes illustrate the jatakas, while a monk welcomes pilgrims with a bowl of dried fruit tea and yak butter. From the windows of Gompa, the view opens out into a mosaic of land planted with barley. Or like the recently restored Stongdey Gompa, less impressive in principle, as hidden from view during the journey, but no less improbable in its aerie by location and houses a precious library of manuscripts.
You can finally climb up to the ruins of Zangla Fort, built in the eighteenth century by General Zorawar Singh Rajput, who came here from today's Himachal Pradesh along the river Suru at the head of 5,000 men to subdue the local chieftains. To maintain control of the area, built a strong leader, from which one can enjoy a spectacular view over the valley, but that is in such a state of disrepair that it seemed useless and any hypothetical future recovery attempt.
And the festival in Linshat Gompa, religious and cultural center of the area, and still the Gompa, the chorten and mani walls, also known as mendong, dry or cemented with mud, the surface of which is entirely composed of shale rock or pebbles on which were carved sacred figures or letters of the sacred mantra. Om Mani Padme Hum, the mantra of mantras. Or even our songs, strictly seventies, out of tune to the sky as we walked single file in the Zanskar valley.
Five thousand years ago a highly developed civilization occupied the great Indus Valley, at the foot of the Himalayas, and the surrounding areas. Archaeologists call the Harappan culture, named after the first city in the region to be discovered. The city of Harappa in the Indus valley, dates back to the Bronze Age and is built on a series of artificial mounds along the banks of the River Ravi, in the Pakistan.
Archaeological remains show that the culture was very advanced, comparable in many respects with the highest civilization of the same era: the Old Kingdom Egyptian and Mesopotamian kingdoms. Archaeologists ignore almost all social organization, religious practices and the writing of this civilization. They know, however, that fishing and fish trade had an important role in the life and culture of Harappa. Source of protein, often represented on common objects and seals, the fish apparently had a major role in the economy of the Indus basin at the time of Harappa.
Fishing was practiced even in the sea, capturing even mollusca, and shells were used raw material for handicrafts. The fish caught in the sea was preserved with simple and effective techniques, still in use today, and transported over long distances.
The people of Harappa was supposed to be peaceful, as the excavations show few signs of conflict. The testimonies of everyday life pottery, tools, jewelry, objects of common use, with reliefs Banquet Facilities attest to a domestic life and a craft of great refinement. State structures are poorly understood vice versa.
Whilst the Egyptians and Mesopotamians have left sculptures, bas-reliefs and murals, the Harappans there are only relatively small urban sites: the ruins of houses in clay bricks that make up plants ordered checkerboard. In addition to Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro were important cities in Pakistan and Dholavira, in the Indian state of Gujarat. In all these centers are found evidence of the existence of a state, but the questions are many.
Perfected Who created the urban water distribution network? Who organized the supply of the markets? They were members of a higher caste, noble, or religious? We ignore it, but only one authoritative state could impose a system of weights and measures developed as the Harappan: in the absence of rules imposed from above, because the artisans would have to standardize the objects they produced?
Trade between the basins of the Indus and Euphrates is mentioned in Mesopotamian texts, in which the area of the Indus is called Meluhha. A cuneiform text on a clay tablet indicates in particular that King Sargon I 2300 BC had decreed that the ships of Meluhha had the right to carry their load up to Akkad, the capital. relations of trade between the Indus Valley and Mesopotamia were interrupted at the fall of the kingdom of Akkad, around 2125 BC
As a result, the trade passed through intermediate stops, like those of Dilmun on the island of Bahrain, and Magan (Oman). It is possible that lasted until about 1700 BC, when the culture of Harappa disappeared, for reasons still unknown.
A statistical study on the inscriptions of the ancient civilization of Harappa may represent the first stage of a new "Rosetta Stone" for deciphering their meaning, so far remained relentlessly concealed. Indus inscriptions have been known for at least 130 years, but despite hundreds attempts have never been deciphered. On the presumption that they encode a language anyway, said Rajesh Rao, University of Washington (UW), which coordinated the study, now published in Science.
An assumption that was questioned in 2004 by three American scholars Steve Farmer, Richard Sproat and Michael Witzel - according to which it was only brief pictograms devoid of linguistic content.
now the group of mathematicians and computer scientists UW was able to show that those inscriptions actually encode a language. Harappan civilization was formed by the peoples of the Indus Valley that between 2600 and 1900 BC lived in the region corresponding to the modern eastern Pakistan and northwestern India.
Contemporary to those of Egypt and Mesopotamia, including the Indus Valley civilization was highly urbanized and has left numerous inscriptions on symbolical amulets, pottery and tablets. The current study compared a known compilation of texts of Harappa samples with linguistic and nonlinguistic.
The researchers in particular performed calculations to assess the randomness conditional on the order of symbols in contemporary English texts, on the Sumerian language spoken in Mesopotamia at the time of the Indus civilization, ancient texts in Tamil, a Dravidian language that some had speculated be related to the inscriptions of the Indus, and the ancient Sanskrit.
Later they repeated the calculations for samples of symbols that do not belong to spoken languages, in one of which the arrangement of symbols was completely random, while others followed a now available rigidly hierarchical, now mimicking the sequence of bases on the DNA, now followed the order of an artificial language such as Fortran, and so on. Comparison results have shown that the Indus inscriptions fall within the average of those typical of spoken languages and differ significantly from the non-linguistic systems.
Evidence of commercial contacts between the Indus Valley and other countries have been found, in particular, on the coasts of Oman and Mesopotamia. Omani copper came from the hinterland and from the area of the Horn of Africa valuable goods, especially incense. According to scholars must identify with the region Indus the land known in Mesopotamia with the name of Meluhha. In commercial texts and Mesopotamian seals we speak, in fact, ships, merchants and performers Meluhha, maybe even Indian communities residing in Mesopotamia, devoted to commerce.