The need to promote the sale of a product is born with the same trade. However, the advertisement for what we know today was born in the second half of 1800, as a direct result of a number of factors and social transformations: the industrial revolution , mass industrial production, movements of conurbation determined by the progressive abandonment of work in the fields, the widening of literacy and a greater economic prosperity to broader sections of the population, changes and social and political revolutions.
The 1800 is a historical era disseminated by political and revolutionary movements. Just from these stems, in semi-clandestine way, the first form of mass communication announcement with the poster. The members of the revolutionary movements have indeed access to the legal press, which at that time was censored and tightly controlled. They can then publish books and begin to affix, secretly at night, simple large sheets on the walls, attached to the walls with glue. These first posters inherit the same graphic layout of the books that were basically an excerpt.
Later they appear cartoons, while the text begins to be reduced to ensure greater visual impact and faster communication. It makes the road a more modern style, where strong bonds are accompanied by images that intend to excite and engage. This raises the political manifesto, an important trend of mass communication that will continue up to the present, modifying itself according to the taste and following the changes in society.
The second half of 1800 saw a number of important and painful social transformations. The bourgeoisie invests its capital in the industry that, as a result of the rapid pace of technological advances, changes the aspect of the production of goods and the same trade. Born large factories in large urban centers. As a result large numbers of people are moving from the countryside to the cities that expand at an impressive pace. In 1801, for example, London has about 1 million inhabitants. At the end of the century 6.5 million.
This process triggers a series of transformations in relations between individuals, between classes, between people and the environment. Born or are structured large transport lines, services and communications. In large urban redesign the facades of entire neighborhoods they conform, the furnishings are simplified and multiply the venues and public recreation. Explodes business that, in a climate of intense competition, changing consumer habits, fashions, everyday objects. They multiply the shops and created the first department stores in Paris opened Au Bon Marché in 1852, Le Printemps in 1865 and La Samaritaine in 1869.
With department stores, people start to become mass consumers and the climate of increasing depersonalization, and intense competition becomes essential to attract their attention. Growing spectacular element of trade and businesses feel the need to adopt a defined image with a distinctive character, first with signs and shop windows, then with print ads in magazines and put up posters in the streets.
In 1898 it is published one of the first examples of integrated communications, in Art Nouveau style. Henry van de Velde designs for the company's Cologne Tropon not only the poster advertising, but also the packaging for different packaging formats. The product is represented and promoted by a communication system, which is declined on several media (poster advertising, packaging, labels, material on the point of sale. Born advertising as we know it today.The advertisement changes in style and composition of visual elements to changing fashions, the needs and the printing and communications technology advances. Summarized below briefly the distinctive features of the various periods.
There are three movements that penetrate each other. Some features, therefore, are found in each pass or from the first two in the third. You also need to keep in mind that Art Nouveau, Liberty, Floral Style, Jugendstil, and still others have different names for the various national manifestations of the same artistic style. This style crosses transversely Western countries ( US included), with a gap of a few years from one nation and remains for some time a dominant communication model in everyday life.
The movement Arts and Crafts takes place in England, roughly between 1860 and 1890. It is characterized by a strong opposition to the standardized industrial production, the appreciation of the formal quality of crafts, the exaltation of the figure of the artist craftsman, the 'abolition of the difference between academic art (noble and higher) and useful art (lower than the first).
This point is particularly important: it will allow a gradual loosening of graphic design (and later of art direction) pure pictorial art to become an autonomous art, with its own design language, its celebrities, its schools and current, its history. It also allows a progressive democratization of the art form, which becomes independent academies and binds to trade and its rapid changes.
The Arts and Craft spread a substantial push towards the simplification of the image. It is rejected the heavy opulence of ornaments, in favor of a style still ornate, but which refers to the natural elements (plants and flowers) or geometric pattern. It's very strong influence of style Japanese .
The line takes on importance and it becomes much more expressive than ever before. This is particularly evident in the illustrations of English Aubrey Beardsley (1872-1898) basic, two-dimensional, iconic, based on the expressive power of the curvilinear black line on a white background, strongly influenced by Japanese art, lacking that mania, typically Western, which leads to obsessively fill every empty space.
The influence of Beardsley passes to US Will Bradley (1868-1962) and Edward Penfield (1866-1925), together with the typical Art Nouveau influences. In particular, many commercial posters Bradley are single figures, two-dimensional, uniform backgrounds from flat colors, color contrasts, extreme stylization. The lettering of the titles is modern, impactful, with a significant reduction or absence of the texts. In the composition there is often asymmetry of the elements and dynamic tension. All functional characteristics based on the immediacy to a communication and coding on at a glance typical of the next advertising production.
The English influence goes in the Netherlands with Nieuwe Kunst. This current is influenced by Japanese art and the island of Java, Dutch colony at the time. From the point of view of advertising style it is important to remember that the Nieuwe Kunst makes use of a lettering modern in conception, though not in the true typographic choice and own. The titles of the posters are an integral part of the visual appearance. The image and the text, that is, they are not distinct entities who are to live almost by chance in the same perimeter (the poster). They are one. This is particularly evident in the poster advertising the 1925 Delftsche Slaolie for hand Jan Toorop (1858-1928).
The Art Nouveau and characterizes the new urban commercial culture of the late 1800s and early 1900s, until the First World War. It is a mass art, aimed at a wider audience. The Art Nouveau in all its variants is characterized first of all by the expressive power of the line, that line is understood as natural, sinuous and curvilinear, borrowed from natural forms: it is the so-called line in whiplash.
The Art Nouveau is expressed with particular wealth of results with the medium of the poster and the list of artists to remember would be very long. Among the many great poster designers at this time we should be mentioned: the French Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Jules Chéret, Eugène Grasset, Théophile-Alexandre Steinlein and Czechoslovak Alphonse Mucha and the Belgian Henry van de Velde.
The sinuous curve, the ornament, the use of the image shown, but still realistic and some recurring style frivolity mark the limit of Art Nouveu style. The advertising style begins to change favoring the industrial needs already with posters and handouts of Peter Behrens for AEG, around 1910.
The Allgemeine Elektricitæts Gesellschaft contact Behrens in 1907, under the direction of illuminated Emil Rathenau. The task is unprecedented in the history of design. Behrens is asked to design every single visual identity of the AEG group from the logo, fonts, corporate identity, every application of advertising on every possible means, including point of sale, and everything below the line or the publications and catalogs available to the company and products. Beyond that Behrens it is also commissioned to design the products (from the fans to the turbines), the buildings, the buildings for the workers.
It is the first project, colossal, the corporate identity. The ads and their variation on stores come off significantly from the Art Nouveau elements are arranged in a precise and consistent graphics grid that imposes order, movement and proportion. The style makes no reference to the human figure. The product, photographic and no longer shown, stands in a clearly derived from the architecture system.
The project is fundamental AEG-experiment in the history of advertising and graphic design because it establishes a modus operandi which takes root in the decades to come and that characterizes modern Western media: the corporate image must have unique characteristics, which emerge clearly on various means and must be declined consistently on all media, including all advertising media.
The conveyance of the advertisement on the means chosen is the advertising campaign. The choice of means for the advertising campaign is closely linked to the nature of the product or service, to the habits of potential buyers and customer budgets. The means change and evolve if the origins of the advertisement was printed exclusively, today a number of means are available.
The means of distribution of an advertisement today are posters, the press, the radio, the television, the web and with it the social networks, the mailing . The advertisement can also be spread through the materials for the store where exhibitors Product, totem, postcards, rotair, small publications like folding and flyers.
There has recently been joined, with conventional means, the diverse family of actions advertising guerrilla . The spread of smartphones and tablet is opening also new communication perspectives. It is very common that more means are chosen to promote the product effectively. Whatever the means chosen the advertising campaign can be international, national or local, depending on the requirements and the customer's financial resources (budget).
The campaign can be declined in moments of revelation of the product or service different. One speaks in this case of campaign teaser , from English to tease : tease. It's a teaser advertising campaign where the ad does not fully reveal the message and creating curiosity and anticipation. This curiosity can help raise the level of attention of the target, before the campaign revelation, which is next to the teaser.
It can be internal, external and/or dynamic. internal posters and the posters are exhibited in private spaces, usually inside buildings or offices. External ads are posted in the spaces positioned along the streets or in public places such as train stations and metro stations, airports. Dynamic posters and flyers are posted in the spaces dedicated on public transport, such as trams, buses and subways.
The advertisement, suitably declined, is printed in various formats in newspapers, magazines, attachments, and approximately every other possible form of the print medium. The press campaign may be conducted on general press, for example by publishing a newspaper like La Stampa , or in specialized magazines and dedicated to a particular topic. In the latter case we speak of rural trade press.
The announcement is declined for the radio medium, with the participation of speakers and the addition of music or jingles. It is then spread in certain time slots and with a given frequency of steps/hour. The concept of it is explained with a movie, usually 30, 20 or 15 seconds. It is rare that one commercial on national television exceed this length because of the very high costs. It is often the case that the spot produced two versions of 30 seconds, more engaging and narrative and that of 15 seconds, which summarizes and recalls the first.
The announcement is declined in various formats banner animated or static, and conveyed on websites, portals, search engines and social networks. The more complex the framework of social networks, where the trend is to convey the message through direct interaction with users. The announcement is conveyed directly to the person, by mail. A term frequently used to define the mailing is the hole-hole , since the ad is placed in the mailbox of the potential buyer.