An electronic book, digital book or an e-book or eBook is the digital evolution of a book available in almost all languages from bangla, hindi, english to all others. It is important to differentiate between electronic or digital book, where one of the most popularized devices for reading is the e-book reader or e-reader.
Some authors propose that a distinction should be made between e-books and hypertext. The hypertext is intended for the structuring of information through links, while an electronic book has been defined as the digital version of a book. Although this definition used to refer to books originally published on paper, there is an increasing number of e-books that do not have a print edition in origin. An example of hypertext would be Wikisource and an eBook, any book in digital format that can be found on the Internet or any data storage device.
We can find the fluid textbooks and fixed layout. Fluid textbooks are those that allow us to modify the appearance of the text through the reader we use, we can change its size, color, line spacing and margins. However in fixed-layout, we see the fixed content in some way, not to mention the interactive features that it might contain, we see a design that we can not alter.
The electronic book is an information resource of recent insertion in the universe of science, technology, education and culture. So far the e-Books represent the last step completed by publishers in digital editing in a type of personal computer with a touch screen of high definition and a menu system with the use of basic commands. There are many devices that can be used as e-book reader like the PC, PDA, laptop and in general any device that has display and memory.
However, at the end of the first decade of the 21st century devices began to appear whose function was to exclusively serve for the reading of electronic books. These devices are characterized by a design that allows to emulate the versatility of the traditional paper book. Mobility and autonomy were therefore sought (mobile devices with low power consumption to allow long readings without the need for recharges), screens with enough dimensions to display traditional documents (an A4 or an A5) and high level of contrast even in full light day.
In this context electronic ink appears, which has a paper effect due to the lack of own illumination and high contrast obtained and its low consumption (because this technology does not need power more than in the changes of screen. Examples of such devices are the Amazon Kindle and the iPad, an Apple product that besides offering an online bookstore like Amazon, also allows to diversify the presentation of electronic books with multimedia capabilities.
In recent years it has begun to incorporate the collections of libraries, particularly those that are embedded in academic institutions. In spite of the relatively short time that the e-book has in the collections of digital libraries, its incorporation is generating a revolution in the transmission of knowledge and in the diffusion of culture.
Among the potential offered by the e-book, we can mention the enormous capacity of storage of information as the possibility of transporting it in large volumes. The electronic book has both advantages and disadvantages. However, it is necessary to distinguish between the reader (an electronic device with a memory capable of storing hundreds of electronic books) and the electronic book itself, which is no more than a computer file in a specific PDF, MOBI or EPUB format.
Among the advantages derived from the use of electronic readers are several. With them you can read almost any document anywhere. When using electronic ink technology there is no backlight, as is the case with other handheld devices (tablets, computers or mobile phones). The experience is therefore similar to reading a paper book without any weariness for the eye, which allows therefore to prolong the reading for hours.
The accessibility is one of the strengths of the eBook. More advanced readers on the market offer Internet connection, which can be connected to the main portals selling e-books and download the electronic editions of newspapers or conventional magazines. Readers who use the electronic ink technology consume very little battery due to lack of backlight. The greater consumption occurs with the passage of the pages, reason why the duration of the same is very high.
As for drawbacks, the biggest of which has been its high price until the appearance of the Amazon Kindle. From that moment a race to offer cheaper devices and with a set of associated services such as online bookstores like the ones of the Barnes & Noble or the possibility of loan between users with the same one begins. Because of these advantages and disadvantages, it has generated a public debate driven by the media's view of the e-book. In this debate there are arguments both in favor of the digital book and in favor of the paperback.
Among the formats commonly used for eBooks are the following:
DjVu is a free format that specializes in particular stands out in the storage of scanned images. Includes advanced compressors optimized for color images and text documents. Individual files may contain one or more pages. The advantage of DjVu is that it is possible to have a high resolution of scanning (300-400 dpi), enough for both the reading on the screen and printing, and store it very efficiently.
EPub is a free format developed by the International Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF). It is an XML based on three open source standards, such as Open Publication Structure (OPS), Open Packaging Format (OPF) and Open Container Format (OCF). Talking about an open source XML format means that it meets standards, which is not subject to any arbitrary provisions of any company, and would therefore be expected to have no problem of enduring. In this way, the books acquired in this format can work indistinctly in different readers, unlike DRM-blocked books such as those offered by Amazon in Kindle format. It is an update of the old format called Open eBook (.opf)
Microsoft Reader (.lit), is one of the oldest formats, created in the year 2000 is read with Microsoft Reader, a free application of the company of Seattle and was originally intended for use in PDAs. Mobipocket is the native format of the Kindle eReader, which is not surprising considering that Amazon bought the company Mobipocket before launching the Kindle. In unprotected eBooks there is no difference between mobipockets that are for the Kindle and those that are not, and that is why Kindle advertising points out that it supports unprotected mobipockets. On the protected books, however, there is a flag that is enabled for those who are for the Kindle, and disabled for the rest.
OEB is a free format. Open eBook is a standard format. It is sponsored by the NIST (National Institute for Standards and Technology of the United States) consortium. This consortium groups together the main content providers as well as the main companies of devices and developers of programs and software to generate and distribute electronic books. The OEB is just a markup language belonging to the XML family.
The extension .azw comprises two formats, KF7 and KF8, an evolution of the latter. It is the format used to support e-book readers marketed by Amazon. The KF7 is based on Mobipocket, with a small difference in the serial number scheme (uses an asterisk instead of a dollar sign) but differs in the DRM system. The extension in the filename for protected Kindle eBooks is .azw instead of the traditional .prc or .mobi of the mobipockets.
The Broad Band eBook is a format of SONY used for its electronic books including the PRS-600 and 300. It is a proprietary format, without reading software known by non-Sony devices. As announced months ago, this format will die to pass its entire catalog to the ePUB open format. The new T1 reader no longer supports this format.
DAISY is an XML based eBook format created by DAISY international consortium of libraries for people with print disabilities. DAISY implementations have focused on two types: audio e-books and text e-books. FictionBook is an XML format for storing books where each element of the book is described by tags. The main purpose for storing books in the FictionBook format is its accurate maintenance of the structure of the book accompanied by the effort of converting (including automatic) FictionBook files to other popular formats: TXT, DOC, RTF, HTML etc. In addition, many reading applications and e-readers, such as the Papyre, allow you to read the FictionBook format without converting.
TomeRaider is a proprietary format. There are versions of TomeRaider for Windows, Windows Mobile (aka Pocket PC), Palm, Symbian, iPhone and more. It is an unused format. The Wolf format usually uses the extension. Wol. It can support DRM. Jinke has native support for Wolf format in all of its readers. It also has a lite version and a browser version for Windows platforms.
To alleviate the fear of the publishing world in the face of possible loss of rights over the content of their works, Adobe has created a complex security system framed within Digital Rights Management (DRM) systems. The security of this system, in addition to providing extra revenue to Adobe, encourages publishers such as Pearson or Dykinson to edit technical titles. However other publishers like O'Reilly offer their books without DRM, respecting the desires and rights of their readers.
DRM systems include restrictions on the freedom to read books on devices other than those specified or limitations by date and may even lead to deleting books already purchased, as in the case of Amazon with the novel 1984 by George Orwell.