Ramadan is the month in which Muslims fast from dawn until sunset and is according to the Islamic calendar falls in the ninth month of the year and lasts for 29 or 30 days. It is a great time of year for the faithful Muslims. Ramadan begins with the appearance of the moon on the last day of the month of Shahab, the eighth month of the Islamic lunar calendar.
Fasting (sawm) during that month is the fourth of the five pillars of Islam. In some Muslim-majority countries failure to observe the fast in public places is a criminal offense, but in the private sphere, there is no obligation. When women are under menstruation they can neither fast nor pray. Also if people have had nausea and vomiting, that day is not counted as fasting.
During the month of Ramadan in fact, Muslims refrain from drinking, eating, smoking and practicing sexual activities. As-suḥūr is to take some food in the early morning, always before faŷr, even a little water, which runs from midnight to the entrance of the moment of the prayer, before the first light of dawn, with the intention of fasting present in the mind. Siwāk is a piece of a branch of a special tree that is found in the Arabian peninsula and which is of many benefits, both for the teeth and for the gums and the mouth, and is used as a brush.
When the fasting is broken, tradition has it people prefer to eat a date. Alternatively, people drink a glass of water. The Iftar is the time to gather the members of the family and friends in a celebration of faith and joy. After this meal, it is social practice to go out with the family to visit friends and family and gather for the practice of prayer.
In addition to fasting, Muslims are encouraged to read the entire Quran. Some recite, through special prayers 11 called Tarawih, which is performed in the mosques every night, during which a whole part of the text is recited. Therefore, reciting the entire book is usually completed by the end of the month.
Since the Islamic calendar is made up of 354 or 355 days, Ramadan falls at a different time of the calendar year, and then gradually falls into a different season. When Ramadan overshadowed the festival of Ashura, in terms of importance, it took certain characteristics of the latter. This commemoration is minor for the Sunnis but is of particular importance for the Shiites.
The celebration takes place on the 10th day of the month of Muharram and mourning continues for 40 days until the Arbaïn. The main pilgrimage takes place in Kerbala, Iraq. At the end of Ramadan is celebrated the Eid al-Fitr.
The Laylat al-Qadr or Shab-e-Qadr has a double meaning for Shiite Muslims as the night of the 21st day of Ramadan, which also marks the anniversary of the martyrdom of the first Shia Imam, Ali ibn Abi Talib.
Eid al-Fitr, the feast of the end of the fast, occurs when the new moon is sighted in the sky and this means that the month of Shawwal begins, ending the month of Ramadan. On the first day of the month of this new month, holidays of 3 consecutive days occur. The distribution of food is prescribed for the poor, banquets are served, gifts are exchanged, new clothes are dressed and thanks to God are affected, bringing together friends and family. In many Islamic cities, large celebrations are held to celebrate the Eid al-Fitr.