The origins of cricket are unknown although it seems certain that similar to the current cricket games were practiced in England in the south-east as early as the 1300s, imported by Flemish shepherds in that region. The first mention about cricket in England is dated 1597 during a trial the coroner John Derrick testified that practiced the game cricket when he was intent on his studies at the Royal Grammar School in Guildford, Surrey, in 1550.
There are many theories about the origin of the name Cricket. It could be derived from the Flemish word Krick stick, reflecting the cultural and economic exchanges between the south east of England and Flanders. During 1600, several sources testify to the growth of the practice of this game in the south east of England and at the end of the century are already recorded their first games with organized teams. In 1700, the game grew to become the English national sport and as such it spread throughout the British colonial empire. Even in the USA cricket he represented the dominant sport until the Civil War. In 1900, cricket was part of the Olympic Games.
After World War cricket has had a kind of globalization, with the granting of independence to the Dominions and the establishment of the British Commonwealth. Currently listed as Full Members of the International Cricket Council ten countries: Asia is represented by four countries of the Indian subcontinent (Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka); Africa by two (South Africa and Zimbabwe); Oceania by two others (Australia and New Zealand); Europe from England and finally America by only one (West Indies).
Only in these 10 nations playing Test cricket , that is the game in its original form, characterized by games that can last up to five days. However, it is in the last twenty years, because of the interest of two Australian television magnates, first Kerry Packer owner of Nine Network, then Rupert Murdoch owner of the satellite giant SKY, that cricket has found its international dimension: the television requirements have contributed to the success of one Day International, playing by the same rules of the test, but with a limited number of overs per team (currently the number of overs is fixed at 50) and, officially born in the sixties, he saw his first encounter international (ODI) contend in 1971 between Australia and England, and in 1975 was played the first cricket world Cup .
In 2003, the English professional league adopted a version of the game called Twenty20 , defined as well as each team has only one innings and can beat a maximum of 20 overs . This way of playing is currently preferred by the world's major leagues, since the length of matches is reduced to about 3 hours then the televisions can program the filming live. Since 2007 he is held a world championship of Twenty20.
Cricket is a sport born in England and later spread in the countries that were colonies of the British Empire, and that the rules ostriche for the uninitiated, and they considered generically similar to baseball which historically they have developed in evolution nineteenth century in the United States. Today is a sport much later than that in Great Britain, South Africa and in Australia, in some Asian countries such as Pakistan, Sri Lanka and India.
You can play in different forms, and in the more traditional test cricket matches can last up to five days in length this had led to a sharp decline in viewers, especially in recent years, so that the international federation has long been looking for ways to reform the test cricket and remedy the decline in interest.
The different forms of today's cricket matches are differentiated on the basis of the number and duration of game phases: the longest and traditionally important is precisely the cricket test and the name comes from the fact that the games are a test for the ability and the strength of the teams. Here are the matches consist of four innings or offensive two phases for each team, with an unlimited number of over for each pitcher: an over is a set of six launches valid, beyond which the pitcher must be substitute by a fellow team. The meetings last between three and five days, from morning to evening, with two long interruptions in the course of each day and the other shorter.
The chance to play test cricket is granted by the International Cricket Council (ICC) were the only full members of the Federation full members. Today, ten national have this status, and the last one to get it was the Bangladesh in 2000. Australia, Bangladesh, India, England, New Zealand, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Zimbabwe, plus a team formed by the fifteen islands that were, or are British rule, the West Indian cricket team. Zimbabwe had auto five years ago because of his poor performance in the meetings, but intends to return to compete in test cricket in 2011.
Beginning in the sixties were introduced other forms of cricket, even to suit the needs of entertainment and television, in which the length of matches is greatly reduced by intervening on the number of over each match for these forms it speaks of limited overs cricket.
The one that has had great success in recent years is the Twenty20 (T20), which is played since 2003, in which each team is granted only twenty overs, after which the game ends. With this formula, the meetings last about three hours, and can then be played in the evenings. Many of the best players give up playing Test cricket matches in favor of the less demanding and much more remunerated Twenty20 matches.
Another form of success is the One Day International (ODI), restricted to international matches, where over fifty are. You play the seventies and is the format of the World Cup of cricket.
The new formulas have some positives that have ensured the success becomes more clearly identify the strongest team while in test cricket there is only a complex system of ranking, easier and less challenging to follow the games. But on the other hand, the test cricket is the most traditional soul of the sport, where matches are less aggressive and spirited than other contemporary sports (not for nothing that the cricket is also known as the sport of gentlemen and the same ODI and T20.
Finding a solution to revitalize the test cricket, the ICC, is not simple. In 2013 will be held in England the World Test Championship, during which the four national teams with the highest ranking currently India, South Africa, England and Sri Lanka will face off for the first time in order to determine who is the champion of official test cricket. However, there are some problems to be solved before then the presence ODI and other formulas would create several world champions in contemporary art, and above all there is the fact that many test cricket matches ending in a draw.
One idea is to advance, in the event of a tie, the team with the higher ranking, but this would encourage the strongest team in a boring defensive tactics. Another is to completely abolish the time limit for the final and continue until one team wins, but as he tells the Wall Street Journal , the last previous with this arrangement dates back to 1949 and is not very encouraging: England he was in South Africa and at the end of nine days of play, when the game was still tied, he had to leave the meeting to take a ship to return home.
According to the American newspaper, however, there is only one way to solve the problem change the times at which the games are played Test cricket, moving them in the late afternoon and in the evening so that the public should not take a day off from work to follow in the stadiums.